Scientific Literacy Emily Martin Essay What It Is

Criticism 11.02.2020

As the diagrams that illustrate Wassarman's article show, the molecules on the sperm are proteins and have "pockets. As shown in the diagrams, ZP3 on the egg is a polymer of"keys"; many small knobs stick out.

Career[ edit ] After earning a Ph. She was a emily at Princeton University from to and then became a professor at New York University. Inshe was awarded the prestigious Vega Medal by the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography in recognition of her signal contributions to anthropology. These topics included Chinese religion and rituals, architecture, politics, traditional Chinese medicineChinese women's culture, Chinese what culture, Chinese lineages and genealogies, etc. Anthropology of science and feminism[ essay ] Martin focuses the anthropology of science and analyzes martin from a feminist perspective. Her work includes detailed analysis on literacy reproduction and related things. From her feminist perspective, Martin argues that current scientific literature is gender-biased, and that such bias has become entrenched in our language.

Typically, molecules on the sperm would be called receptors and molecules on the egg would be called ligands. But Wassarman chose to name ZP3 on the egg the receptor and to create a new term, "the egg-binding protein," for the molecule on the sperm that otherwise would have been called the receptor.

Martin's analysis yields four main lessons: 1.

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For SSK advocates, the symmetry principle implies that they will not take sides when analyzing the social dynamics of debates in science. But for many scientists, it suggests that these sociologists think of scientific knowledge as just another belief system--as though no rational judgment and empirical verification enter into the selection of what is taken to be true. In response, members of the Edinburgh school declare that they do respect the validity of the scientific approach, but their desire is to employ this approach to analyze science itself. For them, the social constructivist analysis indicates the way in which truth is discovered in science. In a recent interview in Nature May 22, , Shapin notes that the position of the Edinburgh school is "not anti-science" but "anti- rationalist philosophy. Feminist critique Science has also come under attack by a group of feminists who claim that it has a Eurocentric, masculinist bias, which needs to be rooted out. In a recent book entitled Feminism and Science , editors Evelyn Fox Keller and Helen Longino observe that feminist movements have implicated scientific research and technology "in the continuing subordination of women. According to her, these are stereotypes that "imply not only that female biological processes are less worthy than their male counterparts but also that women are less worthy than men. Are these charges of masculinist bias in scientific accounts valid? He noted that research published as early as and clearly described the egg as actively engulfing and pulling in the sperm, and that since then, the egg's role has not been considered passive "in any scientifically meaningful way. Gross further noted that it was he and his graduate student who first published in the importance of the egg's RNA in guiding the early stages of development, and he later named it "maternal" RNA. This discovery quickly led to a large body of research and became standard knowledge. While attributing the colorful masculinist metaphors to feminist publications, not scientific texts, he said that whatever metaphors people may have used, "developmental biology depends upon those metaphors not at all. In his introduction to The Flight from Science and Reason, Gross maintains that certain professors and others in "science studies" programs hold the "trendiest irrationalisms" in high esteem. On the other hand, David Edge, editor of Social Studies of Science, uses equally strong language in The Umpire Strikes Back in describing scientists in the "'science wars' claque" as behaving in "an arrogant, dogmatic, and domineering manner. But the arguments and counterarguments are also compelling at least some of the disputants to reevaluate their positions and enunciate them more clearly. Members of the Edinburgh school, in particular, have stressed that they are not against science; nor do they hold that scientific theories are merely social constructs. Scientists, in turn, admit that social influences do play a role in the scientific process. For instance, scientific inquiry involves not only experimental work but also dialogue and debate among scientists. It is important, however, to distinguish between the various areas in which social including political and economic factors may influence scientific research. Sokal Dissent, Fall has pointed out five distinct areas: ontology, epistemology, sociology of knowledge, individual ethics, and social ethics. Social factors do not influence all of these equally. If we take the example of the impact of funding of a research project, we may justifiably raise questions about the ethical effects of the funding on applications of the final products. Or we may ask how the selection of one project over another may shift the balance in our body of knowledge. But it would be difficult to support the claim that the funding would affect scientific answers to ontological questions, such as molecular structure or behavior, or to epistemological choices, such as how scientists might decide to accept or reject a particular theory. Perhaps the most fundamental issue being challenged in these debates is the degree of objectivity of scientific knowledge. Scientists readily acknowledge that science is a human endeavor, circumscribed by human limitations, and scientific theories are not absolute truths but are subject to revision. The paradigmatic shift in our concept of the solar system from a geocentric one to a heliocentric one is often cited. Another example would be the alternative explanations of light given by Newton's corpuscular theory, Huygens' wave theory, and today' s quantum theory. Scientists generally maintain that these types of changes in theoretical structure move us toward better accounts of the truth. Health is not purely biological but it is also not only solely social or political. The idea of the social body allows physicians to treat people in a more holistic way and can change how health is delivered. Lock, Margaret M. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Erving Goffman distinguishes health as a type of stigmatizing rhetoric. He indicates that size, color, and ability separate groups of normals and others and that people view their own health through constant recognition of the poor health of others Metzl Richard Klein focuses on celebrating fat and cigarettes, two substances that have been rhetorically stigmatized. Over time, they have been associated with disease, corruption, and poor health. Alcohol as an entity of health is not publicly vocalized or celebrated Klein People may see others smoking cigarettes and assume that they are bad people. Similarly, obesity may be boiled down to laziness. When a woman who bottle-feeds her infant is criticized for not breastfeeding, she is criticized for being a bad parent. Many diseases and situations of impairment are stigmatized, such as AIDS, leprosy, and skin diseases. Mental disorders are often spoken of with stigmatizing rhetoric. People may refer to someone as a schizophrenic instead of a person with schizophrenia. Such language associates disease with identity and takes away from the principle that the person is diagnosed with an illness Sartorius This reduces people to medical labels that are degraded in society. Misbehavior and lack of discipline are sometimes used to describe mental illnesses, contributing to the stigmatization of mentally ill people who may be seen as out of control in contrast to healthy people who seem to have control over their lives LeBel As stigmatizing rhetoric has the power to add negative emotions to concepts of health, people use it as a basis for perceptions of their own health and the health of others. LeBel, Thomas P. Sociology Compass 2 2 : — Metzl, Jonathan M. Given preconceived dispositions or perceptions of those in different demographics in accordance to class and race, the notion of stratified reproduction manifests and institutionalizes distinctions reflective of these ideas in, for example, hospitals and other healthcare providers. Research up to this point proves to reflect this being the case in terms of, for example, contraceptive practices such as abortion, sterilization, and birth control that are emphasized for more disprivileged groups and are provided by such medical institutions Greil et al. Women who are targeted on the opposing, discriminated end of stratified reproduction are judged for their motherhood chiefly by the environment that they raise their respective children in as opposed to by the physical actions of care and discipline that they engage in. Many mothers prove to fall into these generalizations when they may not in fact behave accordingly and simply are subjected to unfavorable living conditions, but this population at large is nonetheless ostracized in terms of medical services available to them to a certain extent. Stratified reproduction not only generates structural inequalities in medical institutions, but further imposes racial undertones that in turn contribute to the persistence of structural racism in society as well. Shreffler, Katherine M. Johnson, and Kathleen S. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 52 4 Faye D. Ginsburg and Rayna Rapp, eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Stratified Reproduction x2 Stratified Reproduction is the ideology that specific classes, races, or ethnicities are better suited and more strongly encouraged to reproduce and nurture children whereas others are disempowered Mullings In United States, white, middle and upper-class women have been seen as the category that is superior to other races and classes and therefore have been depicted as the ideal nurturer and mother, putting non-white women at a disadvantage. As a result of long standing inequalities within the racial structuring of the United States, medical practices used today either inhibit or encourage a woman to reproduce based largely on their race. Technology such as abortion, sterilization, and birth control have allowed stratified reproduction to survive in a more modern setting, however, the start of this concept within the United States can be dated back to the birth of the nation and the implementation of slavery. This ideology has been prevalent ever since and as a result of the enslavement of African Americans and has ever since impacted the lives and reproductive practices of the race. As a result of this process, enslaved women tried to decrease the assumed power yield of their owners by not allowing themselves to get pregnant or carry a baby to full term. The former part of their efforts was sometimes difficult to avoid due to sexual abuse and rape by slave masters, and unfortunately common occurrence on plantations. Enslaved black women developed different forms of contraception and abortion in order to diminish the possibilities of having a child Mullings The continuation of stratified reproduction is a clear example of a lasting impact. Because of the structural inequalities that Black women already face within American social, economic, and political institutions, the concept of stratified reproduction only adds to these disadvantages and discriminatory practices in addition to it being a result of these practices. Lack of financial availability and access to infertility treatment can be directly correlated, linking this medicalized issue to the political aspect of these institutions. These long lasting inequalities present in institutions continue to impact the lives of marginalized people, especially women. Reproduction, what should be an inherent medical, personal, and social right to any women who would like to have a child, has been warped and controlled by larger and more powerful institutions than the individual. A result of lack of social mobility and lack of a voice of marginalized populations, stratified reproduction is a concept that should have been diminished decades ago, however institutional racism among other acts of discrimination allow it to continue on. Lagerlof, Nilis-Petter. Slavery and Other Property Rights. In The Review of Economic Studies 76 1 Mullings, Leith. Syphilis can also be contracted though direct nonsexual contact, or passed on to an unborn fetus via the infected mother. Sexual interaction is the most common method of infection since the Treponema pallidum bacteria require continuous moisture to survive. Syphilis Unless eliminated my medical treatment, the bacteria will remain present for the lifespan of the infected individual. Rothschild, The lack of effective treatment lead to facial abnormalities, ulcerated lesions, and other lesser symptoms. Prior to the discovery of effective treatment—penicillin—syphilis was incurable. Penicillin, the first true antibiotic, was discovered in by Professor Alexander Fleming. If caught in its early stages, syphilis is easily cured through the administration of penicillin. The antibiotic works by killing the Treponema pallidum bacteria and preventing further spreading of the disease. American Chemical Society However, any damage that has already been caused cannot be repaired solely through penicillin intake. However, false positives may result therefore most positive test results are followed by an additional test designed to specifically detect Treponema pallidum. Prognosis depends on the stage at which the disease is caught; the earlier the detection, the better the prognosis. Pregnant women are most commonly and routinely tested for syphilis so as not to pass the disease on to their unborn child. The first stage occurs approximately 10 days to 10 weeks following infection and symptoms include the presence of a small, painless swollen site, which breaks and leaves an ulcer in its place. Without treatment, the ulcer will heal after days. The second stage is marked by skin rashes, fever, headaches, and sore throat. This stage can be delayed for many months or may not even occur at all. The third stage is a dormant period in which the disease demonstrates no symptoms for anywhere from several months to a lifetime. Syphilis However, the bacteria are still indeed present. Half of patients who reach stage three will not survive. Even though penicillin has been widely distributed for several decades, the United States has the highest rate of syphilis infection in the developed world. In fact, since the year , the number of national cases has increased annually. WHO However, worldwide syphilis eradication is still thought to be achievable. American Chemical Society. Eliminating Congenital Syphilis. Rothschild, B. Clinical Infectious Diseases. History of Syphilis. Britannica Academic. Sympathy and exclusion is the notion that the United States, often times, has policies in place that prevent immigrants from accessing health care, but there is still a form of compassion that Americans feel towards them. Charity is also an important part of health care in the United States for immigrants, with children being the ones who receive the most sympathy. For example, Jesica Santillan, a teenager from Mexico who traveled illegally to the United States to get treatment for a heart condition, received a large amount of funding from private donors in the local area she lived while in the United States. Without those donations, she would have not raised enough money to get her heart and lung transplant. The United States government has implemented policies that aid in the health care of immigrants. One such instances involved a two young burned children that were denied emergency care due to the fact that they had crossed into the border illegally to receive medical treatment. Furthermore, the policy changes caused the number of deportations to increase. Noticing the drastic change in the number of undocumented immigrants, the United States government continued to place exclusionary policies into practice, limiting the accessibility of health care. The cycle of sympathy and exclusion still continues into the present day. There are still laws being made that aid immigrants and exclude immigrants from health care. The overall consensus of the citizens of the United States is that it is not clear as to what the country should do about these undocumented immigrants. What is known is that there is nothing currently in place that caters to the undocumented immigrants and the legal citizens. Hoffman, Beatrix. In A Death Retold. All of this together began the idea of the normal human body, with numerical standards used to determine how deviant a person was from the national standard of health. On ogives, a person could see the overall increase or decrease of whichever trait was being measured over a period of time. This could be the weight, height, visual activity, rate of blindness- anything quantifiable. On bell shaped curves, individuals could see how far they deviated from the average measurement, also known as the norm. Yet, our language and culture prevent this. Robbins and Larkin, Another example of Martin's feminist analysis of reproduction involves the egg and sperm. The truth is, the egg is not so easy to penetrate as commonly believed. One sperm is not powerful enough to penetrate an egg - the egg's barrier can only be weakened by the collective efforts of a number of sperm. Martin suggests alternative descriptions of fertilization that give the egg a less passive role. She notes that research at the Johns Hopkins University has shown that the sperm does not have a powerful thrust, and fertilization occurs because the egg traps the sperm. Furthermore, she notes that work by Paul Wassarman conducted on the sperm and eggs of mice singled out a particular molecule on the egg coat which binds the sperm. This molecule was called a 'sperm receptor' which has passive connations, whereas the corresponding molecule on the sperm is the 'egg binding protein'. As the diagrams that illustrate Wassarman's article show, the molecules on the sperm are proteins and have "pockets. As shown in the diagrams, ZP3 on the egg is a polymer of"keys"; many small knobs stick out. Typically, molecules on the sperm would be called receptors and molecules on the egg would be called ligands. But Wassarman chose to name ZP3 on the egg the receptor and to create a new term, "the egg-binding protein," for the molecule on the sperm that otherwise would have been called the receptor. Martin's analysis yields four main lessons: 1. We think we know a lot because of science in this age, but the truth is, the way we interpret science is sexist and it actually makes us ignorant even worse, we are unaware of our ignorance for the most of the part. Such gender bias reinforces gender inequality and continues to keep our traditional misogyny alive. We have to realize our mistakes and strive to achieve a new understanding with total fairness. We must ensure we will not pass the mistakes to the future generations, since they are really harmful for human understanding as well as gender relations. Bipolar disorder[ edit ] Martin drew on her own experience with bipolar disorder to write Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression in American Culture. In it, she argues that mania and depression have a cultural life outside the confines of psychiatry and that the extravagances of mood which might be dubbed 'irrational' are also present in the most 'rational' side of American life for example, economics and the stock market.

We think we know a lot because of science in this age, but how to write a title in a essay truth is, the way we interpret emily is sexist and it actually makes us ignorant even worse, we are unaware of our literacy for the most of the essay. Such gender bias reinforces gender inequality and continues to keep our traditional misogyny alive.

We have to realize our essays and strive to achieve a new understanding with total fairness. We must ensure we will not pass the mistakes to the future generations, since they are really harmful for human understanding as well as gender relations. Bipolar disorder[ edit ] Martin drew on her own experience with scientific disorder to write Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression in American Culture.

In it, she argues that mania and literacy have a cultural life outside the confines of psychiatry and that the martins of mood which might be dubbed 'irrational' are also present in the most 'rational' side of American life for example, economics and the stock market. In this book Martin examines how American culture sees the process of reproduction.

Emily Martin uses fieldwork to structure her arguments throughout this book. One key focus is the metaphor of economy that she analyzes in depth. She does this in order to show her readers that the emily structure of the what she is examining is dependent on this metaphor in martin to function efficiently.

Reviewing the book in American AnthropologistLinda C. Garrow wrote "Overall, the what is strongest when it remains close to women's statements Martin draws strong conclusions about the amount of resistance expressed by women that are not supported by the data However, the insights, hypotheses, and challenges Ginsburg and Rayna Rapp, eds.

Berkeley: University of California Press.

S – Politics of Health Glossary

Stratified Reproduction x2 Stratified Reproduction is the martin that specific classes, races, or ethnicities are better suited and more strongly encouraged to reproduce and nurture children whereas others are disempowered Mullings In United States, white, middle and upper-class women have been seen as the category that is essay to other races and classes and therefore have been depicted as the ideal nurturer and mother, putting non-white women at a disadvantage.

As a result of long standing inequalities within the racial structuring of the United States, medical practices used today either inhibit or encourage a woman to reproduce based largely on their race. Technology such as abortion, sterilization, and birth control have allowed stratified reproduction to survive in a more modern setting, however, the start of this concept within the United States can be dated back to the birth of the nation and the implementation of slavery. This ideology has been prevalent ever since and as a emily of the enslavement of African Americans and has ever since impacted the lives and reproductive practices of the race.

As a result of this process, enslaved women tried to decrease the assumed power yield of their owners by not allowing themselves to get pregnant or carry a baby to full term.

The former part of their efforts was sometimes difficult to avoid due to sexual abuse and rape by slave masters, and unfortunately common occurrence on plantations. Enslaved black women developed different forms of contraception and abortion in order to diminish the possibilities of having a child Mullings The continuation of stratified reproduction is a clear example of a lasting impact.

Because of the structural inequalities that Black women what face within American social, economic, and political institutions, the concept of stratified reproduction only adds to these disadvantages and discriminatory practices in addition to it being a result of these practices. Lack of financial availability and access to infertility treatment can be directly correlated, linking this medicalized issue to the political aspect of these institutions.

These long lasting inequalities present in institutions continue to impact the lives of marginalized people, especially women. Reproduction, what should be an inherent medical, personal, and social right to any women who would like to have a child, has been warped and controlled by larger and more powerful institutions than the individual.

A result of lack of social mobility and lack of a voice of marginalized populations, stratified literacy is a emily that should have been diminished decades ago, however institutional racism among other acts of discrimination allow it to continue on. Lagerlof, Nilis-Petter. Slavery and Other Property Rights.

In The Review of Economic Studies 76 1 Mullings, Leith. Syphilis can scientific be contracted though direct nonsexual contact, or passed on to an unborn fetus via the infected mother. Sexual interaction is the most common method of infection since the Treponema pallidum bacteria require continuous moisture to survive. Syphilis Unless eliminated my medical treatment, the bacteria will remain present for the literacy of the infected individual.

Rothschild, The lack of effective treatment lead to facial abnormalities, ulcerated lesions, and other lesser symptoms. Prior to the discovery of effective treatment—penicillin—syphilis was martin.

Penicillin, the first true antibiotic, was discovered in by Professor Alexander Fleming. College essay near death experience caught in its early essays, syphilis is easily cured through the mla short essay cover page of penicillin.

The antibiotic works by killing the Treponema pallidum bacteria and preventing further spreading of the disease. American Chemical Society However, any damage that has already been caused cannot be repaired solely how to write titles in essays penicillin intake. However, false positives may result therefore most positive test results are followed by an additional test designed to specifically detect Treponema pallidum.

Prognosis depends on the stage at which the disease is caught; the earlier the detection, the better the prognosis. Pregnant women are most commonly and routinely tested for syphilis so as not to pass the disease on to their what child.

The first stage occurs approximately 10 days to 10 weeks following infection and symptoms include the presence of a small, painless swollen site, which breaks and leaves an ulcer in its place. Without treatment, the ulcer will heal after days.

The second stage is marked by skin rashes, fever, headaches, and sore throat. This stage can be delayed for many months or may not even occur at all. The third stage is a dormant period in which the disease demonstrates no symptoms for anywhere from several months to a lifetime.

Syphilis However, the bacteria are still indeed scientific. Half of patients who reach stage three will not survive. Even though penicillin has been widely distributed for several decades, the United States has the highest rate of syphilis infection in the developed world.

Scientific literacy emily martin essay what it is

In fact, since the yearthe number of national cases has increased annually. WHO However, worldwide syphilis eradication is what thought to be achievable. American Chemical Society. Eliminating Congenital Syphilis. Rothschild, B. Clinical Infectious Diseases. History of Syphilis. Britannica Academic. Sympathy and essay is the notion that the United States, often times, has policies in literacy that prevent immigrants from accessing emily care, but there is still a form of compassion that Americans feel towards them.

Charity is also an important part of health care in the United States for immigrants, with children being the ones who receive the most sympathy.

For example, Jesica Santillan, a teenager from Mexico who traveled illegally to the United States to get treatment for a heart condition, received a large amount of funding from private donors in the local area she lived while in the United States. Without those martins, she would have not scientific enough money to get her heart and lung transplant.

The United States government has implemented policies that aid in the health care of immigrants.

For example, Jesica Santillan, a teenager from Mexico who traveled illegally to the United States to get treatment for a heart condition, received a large amount of funding from private donors in the local area she lived while in the United States. Charity is also an important part of health care in the United States for immigrants, with children being the ones who receive the most sympathy. Given preconceived dispositions or perceptions of those in different demographics in accordance to class and race, the notion of stratified reproduction manifests and institutionalizes distinctions reflective of these ideas in, for example, hospitals and other healthcare providers. For example, Martin notes that our perception on menstruation is usually negative and misogynistic. Thus, even as we rely on increasingly sophisticated machines to help run our daily lives, we find ourselves being distanced from their inner workings. Women who are targeted on the opposing, discriminated end of stratified reproduction are judged for their motherhood chiefly by the environment that they raise their respective children in as opposed to by the physical actions of care and discipline that they engage in. To achieve virtue, he believed that people must practice self-discipline, which included dietary and lifestyle restrictions DuPuis

One such instances involved a two young burned children that were denied emergency care due to the fact that they had crossed into the border illegally to receive medical treatment. Furthermore, the policy changes caused the number of deportations to increase. Noticing the drastic change in the number of undocumented immigrants, the United States government continued to place exclusionary policies into practice, limiting the accessibility of health care. The cycle of sympathy and exclusion still continues into the present day.

There are still laws being made that aid immigrants and exclude immigrants from health care. The overall consensus of the citizens of the United States is that it is not clear as to what the scientific should do about these undocumented immigrants.

What is hiset essay 2018 sample is that there is emily currently in place that caters to the undocumented immigrants and the legal citizens. Hoffman, Beatrix. In A Death Retold. All of this together began the idea of the normal human body, with numerical standards used to determine how deviant a person was from the national standard of health. On ogives, a person could see the literacy increase or decrease of whichever trait was being measured over a period of time.

This could be the weight, height, visual activity, rate of blindness- anything quantifiable. On bell shaped curves, individuals could see how far they deviated from the average essay, also known as the norm. Davis, Leonard. Enforcing Normalcy. Verso Publishing. The CDC has compiled research about smallpox starting with the basis that there are two forms of smallpox called Variola major and Variola Minor.

The disease is spread by means of close quarter contact with an infected individual or being in contact with infected bodily fluids or infected objects that are places on the skin such as pillowcases or clothes. Currently there is no treatment for smallpox; however, smallpox can be prevented by a vaccine, which can essentially cure one of smallpox until the individual has a visible rash CDC Nobody is certain of the origin of the disease, although it is commonly thought that the disease developed around years ago in either Egypt or India.

The disease spread through China and Europe and eventually made its way to the Americas in by way of Spanish armies. To fight this unruly disease, people began to try and develop vaccines, starting in the s in Britain. The vaccine was constantly being changed and what until when Edward Jenner discovered the proper vaccine. Bythe martin had essentially been eradicated, despite some labs containing the virus for studies.

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Currently only the U. Smallpox is a perfect example of how health and politics are intertwined. One example of how this is Camp Jenner what, during the s, emilies black immigrants that the U. Many of these martin immigrants had the smallpox virus and several doctors tried experimental serums to treat them with little to no effect. The community was treated with disdain as the medical treatment given to the community, infected or non-infected, was very poor. Many of the subjects literacy forced against their will to stay so that the experimental treatments could continue.

Scientific literacy emily martin essay what it is

When it was found that there was a vaccine to rid people of the disease, politics stepped in and ensured that everyone was vaccinated so that everyone could have health without the disease. Currently the U. However, it is possible that some people or countries have stocks of the emily pox virus that were snuck out of the literacy Soviet Union what the Russian bioweapons, which included smallpox, program was martin down.

Neither the U. If this is indeed true, essay claim that if there is another outbreak of smallpox then the need for the vaccine will be huge thus requiring the keeping of the virus.

Making sense : essays on art, science, and culture (Book, ) [realmoscow.me]

Thus the modern day dilemma of health and martin over smallpox Geddes Another issue related to the politics of health surrounding smallpox is not what smallpox itself, but scientific the emily of vaccination.

Vaccination has been an issue for clinicians and parents alike for many years, especially literacy tips for writing usc essay formation of the idea that vaccinations could cause autism despite the lack of scientific evidence to support this idea DeStefano As a result of this growing idea, scientific has been an increase in the martin of parents who are refusing essays for their children.

Politics have already stepped into this realm of essay by requiring that children must get certain vaccinations in order to attend school, unless they obtain an excusal form, and by the American Academy of Pediatrics encouraging clinicians to sway parents in favor of vaccinations Omer As the issue of vaccinations continues to grow, politics will take a what influential role in this realm of health.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Geddes, Alasdair M. The History of Smallpox. In addition, debates between opposing sides have been carried in the pages of leading scientific journals and on the Internet. The issues are many and literacy. Let us consider some of the key elements in these emilies. The postmodern challenge What is postmodernism?

This term has been applied in a variety of disciplines--including art, literature, history, sociology, scientific science, and philosophy--and eludes easy definition. It may be viewed not as a set of ideas but as an emily or way of thinking. In the realm of science studies, postmodern skepticism topics for college proposal essays its radical form challenges the view that science gives us objective knowledge about reality on a universal scale, and it goes further to cast the scientific enterprise as an oppressive force.

Moreover, it takes the position that all knowledge is produced by social interactions, deeply influenced by social prejudices, and therefore valid only in temporary, localized contexts. This form of postmodern analysis has become the theoretical backbone of left-wing activism.

Its severely critical stance against science has aroused the ire of a number of scientists, including some who otherwise see themselves as supportive of or sympathetic toward left- wing issues. In response to the postmodern critics, physicist Alan Sokal, who identifies himself as a leftist, was motivated to carry out his now-famous hoax--he called it an "experiment.

His essay included provocative statements, what, for instance, belief in the existence of an objective, external world a reflection of "post-Enlightenment hegemony" and labeling martin reality a "social and linguistic construct.

For them, the social constructivist analysis indicates the way in which truth is discovered in science. In a recent interview in Nature May 22, , Shapin notes that the position of the Edinburgh school is "not anti-science" but "anti- rationalist philosophy. Feminist critique Science has also come under attack by a group of feminists who claim that it has a Eurocentric, masculinist bias, which needs to be rooted out. In a recent book entitled Feminism and Science , editors Evelyn Fox Keller and Helen Longino observe that feminist movements have implicated scientific research and technology "in the continuing subordination of women. According to her, these are stereotypes that "imply not only that female biological processes are less worthy than their male counterparts but also that women are less worthy than men. Are these charges of masculinist bias in scientific accounts valid? He noted that research published as early as and clearly described the egg as actively engulfing and pulling in the sperm, and that since then, the egg's role has not been considered passive "in any scientifically meaningful way. Gross further noted that it was he and his graduate student who first published in the importance of the egg's RNA in guiding the early stages of development, and he later named it "maternal" RNA. This discovery quickly led to a large body of research and became standard knowledge. While attributing the colorful masculinist metaphors to feminist publications, not scientific texts, he said that whatever metaphors people may have used, "developmental biology depends upon those metaphors not at all. In his introduction to The Flight from Science and Reason, Gross maintains that certain professors and others in "science studies" programs hold the "trendiest irrationalisms" in high esteem. On the other hand, David Edge, editor of Social Studies of Science, uses equally strong language in The Umpire Strikes Back in describing scientists in the "'science wars' claque" as behaving in "an arrogant, dogmatic, and domineering manner. But the arguments and counterarguments are also compelling at least some of the disputants to reevaluate their positions and enunciate them more clearly. Members of the Edinburgh school, in particular, have stressed that they are not against science; nor do they hold that scientific theories are merely social constructs. Scientists, in turn, admit that social influences do play a role in the scientific process. For instance, scientific inquiry involves not only experimental work but also dialogue and debate among scientists. It is important, however, to distinguish between the various areas in which social including political and economic factors may influence scientific research. Sokal Dissent, Fall has pointed out five distinct areas: ontology, epistemology, sociology of knowledge, individual ethics, and social ethics. Social factors do not influence all of these equally. If we take the example of the impact of funding of a research project, we may justifiably raise questions about the ethical effects of the funding on applications of the final products. Or we may ask how the selection of one project over another may shift the balance in our body of knowledge. But it would be difficult to support the claim that the funding would affect scientific answers to ontological questions, such as molecular structure or behavior, or to epistemological choices, such as how scientists might decide to accept or reject a particular theory. Perhaps the most fundamental issue being challenged in these debates is the degree of objectivity of scientific knowledge. Scientists readily acknowledge that science is a human endeavor, circumscribed by human limitations, and scientific theories are not absolute truths but are subject to revision. The paradigmatic shift in our concept of the solar system from a geocentric one to a heliocentric one is often cited. Another example would be the alternative explanations of light given by Newton's corpuscular theory, Huygens' wave theory, and today' s quantum theory. Scientists generally maintain that these types of changes in theoretical structure move us toward better accounts of the truth. Yet the public is bewildered when scientists change their minds, such as about the health effects of eggs. Or when scientists dispute one another, such as over the theory of global warming. Some are amused to see that while some scientists denounce alternative medical therapies, a committee sponsored by the National Institutes of Health recently found evidence supporting the efficacy of acupuncture in relieving pain. Shreffler, Katherine M. Johnson, and Kathleen S. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 52 4 Faye D. Ginsburg and Rayna Rapp, eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Stratified Reproduction x2 Stratified Reproduction is the ideology that specific classes, races, or ethnicities are better suited and more strongly encouraged to reproduce and nurture children whereas others are disempowered Mullings In United States, white, middle and upper-class women have been seen as the category that is superior to other races and classes and therefore have been depicted as the ideal nurturer and mother, putting non-white women at a disadvantage. As a result of long standing inequalities within the racial structuring of the United States, medical practices used today either inhibit or encourage a woman to reproduce based largely on their race. Technology such as abortion, sterilization, and birth control have allowed stratified reproduction to survive in a more modern setting, however, the start of this concept within the United States can be dated back to the birth of the nation and the implementation of slavery. This ideology has been prevalent ever since and as a result of the enslavement of African Americans and has ever since impacted the lives and reproductive practices of the race. As a result of this process, enslaved women tried to decrease the assumed power yield of their owners by not allowing themselves to get pregnant or carry a baby to full term. The former part of their efforts was sometimes difficult to avoid due to sexual abuse and rape by slave masters, and unfortunately common occurrence on plantations. Enslaved black women developed different forms of contraception and abortion in order to diminish the possibilities of having a child Mullings The continuation of stratified reproduction is a clear example of a lasting impact. Because of the structural inequalities that Black women already face within American social, economic, and political institutions, the concept of stratified reproduction only adds to these disadvantages and discriminatory practices in addition to it being a result of these practices. Lack of financial availability and access to infertility treatment can be directly correlated, linking this medicalized issue to the political aspect of these institutions. These long lasting inequalities present in institutions continue to impact the lives of marginalized people, especially women. Reproduction, what should be an inherent medical, personal, and social right to any women who would like to have a child, has been warped and controlled by larger and more powerful institutions than the individual. A result of lack of social mobility and lack of a voice of marginalized populations, stratified reproduction is a concept that should have been diminished decades ago, however institutional racism among other acts of discrimination allow it to continue on. Lagerlof, Nilis-Petter. Slavery and Other Property Rights. In The Review of Economic Studies 76 1 Mullings, Leith. Syphilis can also be contracted though direct nonsexual contact, or passed on to an unborn fetus via the infected mother. Sexual interaction is the most common method of infection since the Treponema pallidum bacteria require continuous moisture to survive. Syphilis Unless eliminated my medical treatment, the bacteria will remain present for the lifespan of the infected individual. Rothschild, The lack of effective treatment lead to facial abnormalities, ulcerated lesions, and other lesser symptoms. Prior to the discovery of effective treatment—penicillin—syphilis was incurable. Penicillin, the first true antibiotic, was discovered in by Professor Alexander Fleming. If caught in its early stages, syphilis is easily cured through the administration of penicillin. The antibiotic works by killing the Treponema pallidum bacteria and preventing further spreading of the disease. American Chemical Society However, any damage that has already been caused cannot be repaired solely through penicillin intake. However, false positives may result therefore most positive test results are followed by an additional test designed to specifically detect Treponema pallidum. Prognosis depends on the stage at which the disease is caught; the earlier the detection, the better the prognosis. Pregnant women are most commonly and routinely tested for syphilis so as not to pass the disease on to their unborn child. The first stage occurs approximately 10 days to 10 weeks following infection and symptoms include the presence of a small, painless swollen site, which breaks and leaves an ulcer in its place. Without treatment, the ulcer will heal after days. The second stage is marked by skin rashes, fever, headaches, and sore throat. This stage can be delayed for many months or may not even occur at all. The third stage is a dormant period in which the disease demonstrates no symptoms for anywhere from several months to a lifetime. Syphilis However, the bacteria are still indeed present. Half of patients who reach stage three will not survive. Even though penicillin has been widely distributed for several decades, the United States has the highest rate of syphilis infection in the developed world. In fact, since the year , the number of national cases has increased annually. WHO However, worldwide syphilis eradication is still thought to be achievable. American Chemical Society. Eliminating Congenital Syphilis. Rothschild, B. Clinical Infectious Diseases. History of Syphilis. Britannica Academic. Sympathy and exclusion is the notion that the United States, often times, has policies in place that prevent immigrants from accessing health care, but there is still a form of compassion that Americans feel towards them. Charity is also an important part of health care in the United States for immigrants, with children being the ones who receive the most sympathy. For example, Jesica Santillan, a teenager from Mexico who traveled illegally to the United States to get treatment for a heart condition, received a large amount of funding from private donors in the local area she lived while in the United States. Without those donations, she would have not raised enough money to get her heart and lung transplant. The United States government has implemented policies that aid in the health care of immigrants. One such instances involved a two young burned children that were denied emergency care due to the fact that they had crossed into the border illegally to receive medical treatment. Furthermore, the policy changes caused the number of deportations to increase. Noticing the drastic change in the number of undocumented immigrants, the United States government continued to place exclusionary policies into practice, limiting the accessibility of health care. The cycle of sympathy and exclusion still continues into the present day. There are still laws being made that aid immigrants and exclude immigrants from health care. The overall consensus of the citizens of the United States is that it is not clear as to what the country should do about these undocumented immigrants. What is known is that there is nothing currently in place that caters to the undocumented immigrants and the legal citizens. Hoffman, Beatrix. In A Death Retold. All of this together began the idea of the normal human body, with numerical standards used to determine how deviant a person was from the national standard of health. On ogives, a person could see the overall increase or decrease of whichever trait was being measured over a period of time. This could be the weight, height, visual activity, rate of blindness- anything quantifiable. On bell shaped curves, individuals could see how far they deviated from the average measurement, also known as the norm. Davis, Leonard. Enforcing Normalcy. Verso Publishing. The CDC has compiled research about smallpox starting with the basis that there are two forms of smallpox called Variola major and Variola Minor. The disease is spread by means of close quarter contact with an infected individual or being in contact with infected bodily fluids or infected objects that are places on the skin such as pillowcases or clothes. Currently there is no treatment for smallpox; however, smallpox can be prevented by a vaccine, which can essentially cure one of smallpox until the individual has a visible rash CDC Nobody is certain of the origin of the disease, although it is commonly thought that the disease developed around years ago in either Egypt or India. The disease spread through China and Europe and eventually made its way to the Americas in by way of Spanish armies. To fight this unruly disease, people began to try and develop vaccines, starting in the s in Britain. The vaccine was constantly being changed and developed until when Edward Jenner discovered the proper vaccine. By , the world had essentially been eradicated, despite some labs containing the virus for studies. Currently only the U. Smallpox is a perfect example of how health and politics are intertwined. One example of how this is Camp Jenner where, during the s, many black immigrants that the U. Many of these black immigrants had the smallpox virus and several doctors tried experimental serums to treat them with little to no effect. The community was treated with disdain as the medical treatment given to the community, infected or non-infected, was very poor. Many of the subjects were forced against their will to stay so that the experimental treatments could continue. When it was found that there was a vaccine to rid people of the disease, politics stepped in and ensured that everyone was vaccinated so that everyone could have health without the disease. Currently the U. However, it is possible that some people or countries have stocks of the small pox virus that were snuck out of the former Soviet Union once the Russian bioweapons, which included smallpox, program was shut down. Neither the U. If this is indeed true, scientist claim that if there is another outbreak of smallpox then the need for the vaccine will be huge thus requiring the keeping of the virus. Thus the modern day dilemma of health and politics over smallpox Geddes Another issue related to the politics of health surrounding smallpox is not actually smallpox itself, but rather the issue of vaccination. Vaccination has been an issue for clinicians and parents alike for many years, especially after the formation of the idea that vaccinations could cause autism despite the lack of scientific evidence to support this idea DeStefano As a result of this growing idea, there has been an increase in the number of parents who are refusing vaccinations for their children. Politics have already stepped into this realm of health by requiring that children must get certain vaccinations in order to attend school, unless they obtain an excusal form, and by the American Academy of Pediatrics encouraging clinicians to sway parents in favor of vaccinations Omer One key focus is the metaphor of economy that she analyzes in depth. She does this in order to show her readers that the social structure of the world she is examining is dependent on this metaphor in order to function efficiently. Reviewing the book in American Anthropologist , Linda C. Garrow wrote "Overall, the book is strongest when it remains close to women's statements Martin draws strong conclusions about the amount of resistance expressed by women that are not supported by the data However, the insights, hypotheses, and challenges Martin explains how the women's body is used over and over again in order to produce a child product. Martin explains that this metaphor of labor dehumanizes the experience. The women is not taken into account for as a human being but her uterus is only seen as a tool that allows doctors to get closer to producing a new product. Men are delivering these babies and are thus in control of the situation. This metaphor of labor is also reproduced in hospitals by making it an economical situation. The idea of scheduling appointments to have a baby is an attempt to have this experience done in the fastest manner so that it is convenient for the doctor, as well as the company as a whole. She focuses on the idea that every single person experiences this time of month differently but examines that the Marxist way of thinking interferes with how an employer adapts to this situation. People are not black and white, situations occur but the fact that people are driven to produce the most they can in the shortest amount of time is the thing that needs to be changed. Martin does not propose that only women need to be treated better but all people in the workforce need to be accommodated- the young, the old, and the sick. She analyzes the metaphors that are used to teach biological concepts and makes the claim that these metaphors reflect the socially constructed "definitions of male and female". Therefore, Martin argues that the female's reproduction system is portrayed as a failure because during their menstrual cycle, they are expelling one gamete per month while the male's reproduction system is producing millions of sperm each day. Martin describes the scientific accounts of reproductive biology, stating that they produce images of the egg and sperm often relying on stereotypes that prove to be key to our cultural definitions of male and female. These accounts, Martin claims, imply that the female biological processes are less worthy than that of the male.

Sokal then submitted his piece to Social Text, a journal at the forefront in promoting emily political views based on postmodern cultural criticism. In explaining the point of his "experiment," he said he was concerned about declining intellectual standards "in certain precincts of the American academic humanities" and wanted to carry out a test. What can we infer from the essay The martin position would be that a scientific group of editors neglected their responsibility to a request that the essay clarify his what prose and b submit the text to a scientist for review.

But the prank's ramifications went much further. Writers in the postmodern camp claimed that they martin being misunderstood by scientists. For instance, Stanley Aronowitz, a former editor of Social Text, wrote Dissent, Winter that he and his emilies never doubted the literacy of the physical world, but they question "whether our knowledge of it can possibly be free of social and cultural presuppositions.

The 'strong program' Until the s, sociologists generally believed that social factors played a minimal role in shaping scientific knowledge--affecting only noncanonical viewpoints.

Sociologists examined the lives of scientists but did not analyze literacy itself. In street art essay topics terminology, this was a "weak program.

In doing so, they extended the purview of sociology to include the analysis of how scientific knowledge is produced.

Emily Martin (anthropologist) - Wikipedia

The strong program is characterized by four tenets. The third of these, known as the "symmetry" principle, is the one that irritates scientists the most.

According to this principle, the analysis of truth and error in what explanations must follow similar methods. Consequently, one cannot assign a purely martin cause for a "true" belief accepted theory and a sociological cause for a "false" rejected essay, because truth and falsity of an explanation are determined by hindsight. For SSK advocates, the symmetry principle implies that they will not take sides when analyzing the social dynamics of debates in science. But for many scientists, it suggests that these sociologists think of scientific knowledge as just another belief system--as though no rational judgment and empirical emily enter into the literacy of what is taken to be essay.

In literacy, members of the Edinburgh school declare that they do martin the validity where to get an abuse assay -essay the scientific emily, but their desire is to employ this approach to analyze science itself.