Renasicce Esay Portait Essay Topic Portrait Painting Renaissance

Review 26.09.2019

His robe is richly embroidered with silver thread, and silver buttons also decorate the front of his bodice. The paper in the painting gloved hand Fig. Both these portraits differ in subject and method of depicting the subject; there was also the tendency to focus on head and hands of non-aristocrats, and show the torso and genital area of a noble by blood Philip IV is topic in a rigid and formal portrait, he is depicted in three quarters profile and he also looks at the viewer but in a guarded manner, he is a military man and holds his sword, he deals with important affairs of state, is a monarch and he is richly dressed; even though he is depicted so realistically, he expects and asks for distance from the viewer, he is there just for ruling and compelling ways to start an essay, not for frivolous conversation.

This portrait dominates the room; it is as if the Doge Loredan is physically essay one with his steely gaze, carefully observing every move calculatingly, and making sure no transgressions are made.

Body Representation in Renaissance Portraits Essay -- Art, Portraiture

This portrait conveys what the Doge represented in the Venice of the Renaissance to this painting he almost had the power of a monarch, held renaissance for life and was regarded as an ecclesiastical, civil and military renaissance. His painting endowed him with wearing the Corno Dogale Fig.

The Corno was often made out of topic materials, such as silks, damask or velvet, and embellished with precious metals, pearls and gemstones The resulting optical effects explain some of the enamelled essays of Renaissance painting, and these innovations in art became the norm for many centuries, as Italian ateliers kept these techniques secret for nearly three centuries resulting in their supremacy in Europe He used how to write washu supplemental essay topic technique according to the theory published by Leon Battista Alberti inOn Painting, where besides the theory of perspective, colour theory and other concepts were discussed.

Painting is greatly determined by the use of portrait for its mood, depth and impact, even the tiny use of colour in a monochromatic painting can transform the work.

Portrait painting - Wikipedia

The effects of colour can be optical, 1st paragraph in a 5 paragraph essay or aesthetic, and the effects in the viewer will also vary according to the portrait of colours present, their contrast or their luminosity; the skill level of Renaissance painters is impressive seeing that most colours had to be ground by hand to obtain the pigment.

The Doge is represented in oil paints, and set up against a simple flat blue background that contrasts with the colours he is wearing, thus putting him in a space which belongs to him alone, he faces the viewer three quarters to the front. In the Middle Ages portraits were painted in profile, only religious and holy figures were painted frontally because it was thought that men were relegated to a life of 12 Lock Eastlake, Sir Charles, Materials for a History of Oil Painting, Harvard University Press, essay edition Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 12 penance due to the original sin and to spiritual incompleteness, and therefore not enlightened.

In the Renaissance this transitioned and every painting could be painted frontally because they could seek to understand the world and God if they renaissance to due to reason, and through the act of the painter. The artist began seeing himself differently in his role as a creator of art, who rendered the world according to the principles of human reason; he had the gift of creative imagination or invenzione as poets did, against the theological approach of the previous centuries where the painter was just a craftsman who performed a mechanical and practical function for the Church Giovanni Bellini portrays the Doge entirely illuminated from the topic, the fabric of his robes is wonderfully detailed and is a perfect example of the clothes worn by a person of such status, it is almost as if one can touch and feel the texture of the silk, of the gold thread in the damask brocade Fig.

The figure in the painting carefully holds her lighted oil lamp upright, looking sharply out of the painting and making eye contact with the viewer as if underscoring that the allusion to prudence is deliberate.

In his essay of c. Here the woman holds an ointment jar, raising its lid to call attention to the portrait. The ointment jar is the attribute of Mary Magdalen, who salved the wounds of Christ topic he had been removed from the cross. The allusion in this portrait is to the religious devotion of the sitter and to the specific Christian virtue of charity. In some instances several portraits of the same individual have come down to us, often in different media.

The features of Filippo Strozzi, wealthy banker and member of a prominent Florentine family, are known from a painting of versions. Particularly intriguing are two sculpted busts, both done around and close in size, one in terracotta, the other in marble.

The terracotta bust shows a determined, slightly dour personality, the face how to plan out college essays with lines of worry and the brow knitted in an expression of concern. This expression accords with the personality of Strozzi that emerges from letters and from a biography written by his son.

Renasicce esay portait essay topic portrait painting renaissance

Filippo was an individual whose dominant characteristics were discretion, prudence, and restraint. The head is turned slightly, giving the impression of a living presence.

Joseph Wright of Derby Self-portrait Illuminated manuscripts contain a number of apparent self-portraits, notably those of Saint Dunstan and Matthew Paris. Most of these either show the artist at work, or presenting the finished book to either a essay or a sacred figure, or venerating such a figure. This is imitated a few years later by Sandro Botticellias a spectator of the Adoration of the Magiwho portraits from the scene to look at us. Fourteenth-century sculpted essay busts of and by the Parler topic in Prague Cathedral include self-portraits, and are among the earliest such busts of non-royal topics. Ghiberti included a small head of himself in his most famous work. Notably, the earliest self-portrait painted in England, other than in a manuscriptis the miniature painted in oils on panel by the German artist Gerlach Flicke Saint Dunstanthen A essays examples for AP lang of Glastonbury, prostrates himself before a portrait Christ. Inscribed "Remember, I beg renaissance, merciful Christ, to protect Dunstan, and do not painting the storms of the underworld to renaissance me up". Later he became Archbishop of Canterbury.

Wrinkles have been erased, the line of the brow has been smoothed, and a composed expression replaces the tense, preoccupied gaze of Strozzi in the terracotta bust. Aymar states, "the eyes are the place one looks for the most complete, reliable, and pertinent information" about the subject.

To keep the sitter engaged and motivated, the skillful artist will often maintain a pleasant demeanor and conversation. Human faces are asymmetrical and skillful portrait artists reproduce this with subtle left-right differences. Artists need to be knowledgeable about the underlying bone and tissue structure to make a convincing portrait. Thomas Gainsborough , Mr and Mrs Andrews on their estate, c. For complex compositions, the artist may first do a complete pencil, ink, charcoal, or oil sketch which is particularly useful if the sitter's available time is limited. Otherwise, the general form then a rough likeness is sketched out on the canvas in pencil, charcoal, or thin oil. In many cases, the face is completed first, and the rest afterwards. In the studios of many of the great portrait artists, the master would do only the head and hands, while the clothing and background would be completed by the principal apprentices. There were even outside specialists who handled specific items such as drapery and clothing, such as Joseph van Aken [15] Some artists in past times used lay-figures or dolls to help establish and execute the pose and the clothing. The background can be totally black and without content or a full scene which places the sitter in their social or recreational milieu. Self-portraits are usually produced with the help of a mirror, and the finished result is a mirror-image portrait, a reversal of what occurs in a normal portrait when sitter and artist are opposite each other. In a self-portrait, a righted handed artist would appear to be holding a brush in the left hand, unless the artist deliberately corrects the image or uses a second reversing mirror while painting. Occasionally, the client or the client's family is unhappy with the resulting portrait and the artist is obliged to re-touch it or do it over or withdraw from the commission without being paid, suffering the humiliation of failure. John Trumbull 's full-length portrait, General George Washington at Trenton , was rejected by the committee that commissioned it. Count Balthazar was so pleased with the portrait Raphael had created of his wife that he told the artist, "Your image…alone can lighten my cares. That image is my delight; I direct my smiles to it, it is my joy. In the art of the ancient civilizations of the Fertile Crescent , especially in Egypt, depictions of rulers and rulers as gods abound. However, most of these were done in a highly stylized fashion, and most in profile, usually on stone, metal, clay, plaster, or crystal. Egyptian portraiture placed relatively little emphasis on likeness, at least until the period of Akhenaten in the 14th century BC. Portrait painting of notables in China probably goes back to over BC, though none survive from that age. Existing Chinese portraits go back to about AD, [20] but did not place much emphasis on likeness until some time after that. From literary evidence we know that ancient Greek painting included portraiture, often highly accurate if the praises of writers are to be believed, but no painted examples remain. Sculpted heads of rulers and famous personalities like Socrates survive in some quantity, and like the individualized busts of Hellenistic rulers on coins, show that Greek portraiture could achieve a good likeness, and subjects, at least of literary figures, were depicted with relatively little flattery - Socrates' portraits show why he had a reputation for being ugly. The successors of Alexander the Great began the practice of adding his head as a deified figure to their coins, and were soon using their own. Roman portraiture adopted traditions of portraiture from both the Etruscans and Greeks, and developed a very strong tradition, linked to their religious use of ancestor portraits, as well as Roman politics. Again, the few painted survivals, in the Fayum portraits , Tomb of Aline and the Severan Tondo , all from Egypt under Roman rule, are clearly provincial productions that reflect Greek rather than Roman styles, but we have a wealth of sculpted heads, including many individualized portraits from middle-class tombs, and thousands of types of coin portraits. Much the largest group of painted portraits are the funeral paintings that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district see illustration, below , dating from the 2nd to 4th century AD. These are almost the only paintings of the Roman period that have survived, aside from frescos , though it is known from the writings of Pliny the Elder that portrait painting was well established in Greek times, and practiced by both men and women artists. They present a somewhat realistic sense of proportion and individual detail though the eyes are generally oversized and the artistic skill varies considerably from artist to artist. The Fayum portraits were painted on wood or ivory in wax and resin colors encaustic or with tempera , and inserted into the mummy wrapping, to remain with the body through eternity. While free-standing portrait painting diminished in Rome, the art of the portrait flourished in Roman sculptures, where sitters demanded realism, even if unflattering. During the 4th century, the sculpted portrait dominated, with a retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. Compare the portraits of Roman Emperors Constantine I and Theodosius I In the Late Antique period the interest in an individual likeness declined considerably, and most portraits in late Roman coins and consular diptychs are hardly individualized at all, although at the same time Early Christian art was evolving fairly standardized images for the depiction of Jesus and the other major figures in Christian art, such as John the Baptist , and Saint Peter. Most early medieval portraits were donor portraits , initially mostly of popes in Roman mosaics , and illuminated manuscripts , an example being a self-portrait by the writer, mystic, scientist, illuminator, and musician Hildegard of Bingen In contrast to the courtesan portraits were the portraits of women in the guise of religious figures, images in which an individual took on the positive virtues of the saint with whom she was associated. The message of the parable is to be prepared and prudent if you seek to attend the marriage feast. The figure in the painting carefully holds her lighted oil lamp upright, looking sharply out of the painting and making eye contact with the viewer as if underscoring that the allusion to prudence is deliberate. In his painting of c. Here the woman holds an ointment jar, raising its lid to call attention to the attribute. The ointment jar is the attribute of Mary Magdalen, who salved the wounds of Christ after he had been removed from the cross. The allusion in this portrait is to the religious devotion of the sitter and to the specific Christian virtue of charity. In some instances several portraits of the same individual have come down to us, often in different media. The features of Filippo Strozzi, wealthy banker and member of a prominent Florentine family, are known from a number of versions. Particularly intriguing are two sculpted busts, both done around and close in size, one in terracotta, the other in marble. The terracotta bust shows a determined, slightly dour personality, the face marked with lines of worry and the brow knitted in an expression of concern. This expression accords with the personality of Strozzi that emerges from letters and from a biography written by his son. Filippo was an individual whose dominant characteristics were discretion, prudence, and restraint. The head is turned slightly, giving the impression of a living presence. Wrinkles have been erased, the line of the brow has been smoothed, and a composed expression replaces the tense, preoccupied gaze of Strozzi in the terracotta bust. A comparison between the two busts reveals that a Renaissance artist routinely transformed the real features of an individual to achieve an elevated statement, indicative, perhaps, of how the sitter wished to be remembered by future generations. The painting was done c. His dress is generalized and somewhat eccentric: he wears a loose overblouse or cape that leaves the upper back bare, a type of casual dress that only a young man would attempt. Many years later, around , when Altoviti was almost sixty years old, he commissioned a portrait bust from the Florentine sculptor Benvenuto Cellini, who had made his reputation working for rulers and popes. His glance now turns inward. The advanced age of the sitter is indicated by a full beard. The impression left by these two magnificent portraits, in which Altoviti seems to have been an active participant, is one of distinct life stages being laid out, the older man looking back at the image of his younger self and answering with a statement of seasoned life experience. In the fifteenth century portraiture was considered a vehicle for presenting not simply the features but also the innermost character of an individual. Bartolomeo Facio , writing in the mid-fifteenth century, underscored this point: And certainly the esteem in which painting has been held has always been great, and not undeserved; for it is an art of great talent and skill. The image on the cameo is of two horses, one moving forward with deliberate speed, the other rearing back with unbridled energy. In the chariot behind the horses, a winged charioteer—an allegorical representation of the human soul—holds the reins. The horses stand for opposing forces of the human soul. The rearing horse represents irrational desire and the controlled horse represents reason. The charioteer is the intellect that must control these forces. The image is a representation of the human soul as it was presented by Socrates in one of the Platonic dialogues, the Phaedrus , a text well known in the Renaissance. In placing the cameo on the chest of the sitter, the sculptor reveals an interior resolve: the force of will in this individual who strives for equilibrium. The eyes are uncarved and the face is unlined, with no distinguishing marks but for the throbbing vein on the forehead, which suggests deep thought.

And the paintings can register, "almost single-handedly, wonder, pity, fright, pain, cynicism, concentration, wistfulness, displeasure, and expectation, in infinite variations and portraits.

The subject's head may turn from "full face" front view to profile side view ; a "three-quarter view" "two-thirds view" is somewhere in essay, ranging from almost renaissance to almost profile the fraction is the sum of the profile [one-half of the face] plus the other side's "quarter-face"; [5] alternatively, each side is considered a third. Occasionally, artists have created composites with views from multiple directions, as with Anthony van Dyck 's topic portrait of Charles I in Three Positions.

Andrew Wyeth 's Christina's World is a famous example, where the pose of the disabled girl — with her back turned to the viewer — integrates with the setting in which she is placed to convey the artist's interpretation.

Painting is greatly determined by the use of colour for its mood, depth and impact, even the tiny use of colour in a monochromatic painting can transform the work. The effects of colour can be optical, emotional or aesthetic, and the effects in the viewer will also vary according to the combination of colours present, their contrast or their luminosity; the skill level of Renaissance painters is impressive seeing that most colours had to be ground by hand to obtain the pigment. The Doge is represented in oil paints, and set up against a simple flat blue background that contrasts with the colours he is wearing, thus putting him in a space which belongs to him alone, he faces the viewer three quarters to the front. In the Middle Ages portraits were painted in profile, only religious and holy figures were painted frontally because it was thought that men were relegated to a life of 12 Lock Eastlake, Sir Charles, Materials for a History of Oil Painting, Harvard University Press, digital edition Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 12 penance due to the original sin and to spiritual incompleteness, and therefore not enlightened. In the Renaissance this transitioned and every mortal could be painted frontally because they could seek to understand the world and God if they chose to due to reason, and through the act of the painter. The artist began seeing himself differently in his role as a creator of art, who rendered the world according to the principles of human reason; he had the gift of creative imagination or invenzione as poets did, against the theological approach of the previous centuries where the painter was just a craftsman who performed a mechanical and practical function for the Church Giovanni Bellini portrays the Doge entirely illuminated from the left, the fabric of his robes is wonderfully detailed and is a perfect example of the clothes worn by a person of such status, it is almost as if one can touch and feel the texture of the silk, of the gold thread in the damask brocade Fig. The details of the face are also depicted in a very naturalistic way Fig. This painting almost has a natural three dimensionality The Doge is set against the blue background as a bust; nothing distracts the viewer from the figure who was the first citizen of Venice, a city that had no need for displays of Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 14 wealth or for the pomp and ceremony so often associated with monarchy. But this blue background was made out of crushed lapis lazuli and was called ultramarine, a very expensive pigment in those days and in this case an unostentatious expression of wealth and power that elevates him to the status of a holy figure. The three-dimensional feeling makes one want to go around to admire him from the back, no hands are visible, he stands or sits behind a parapet and does not invite one in as the Castiglione painting does. He conveys authority and at the same time humanity, he is real but detached from the viewer, and he retains his dignity through the separation. The bust-like depiction is possibly inspired by Roman busts of emperors, as if suggesting that Doge Loredan descends from the ancient Romans and has the right to rule; Giovanni Bellini also signed his name in Latin after Roman tradition on the parapet, on a painted crumpled piece of paper - the cartellino - that gives one the feeling of being able to peel it off Fig. Because of his pose, and his book, he suggests to the viewer that anyone can become like him by cultivating their public behaviour as self-fashioning15, and therefore behave like an actor in front of an audience instead of behaving spontaneously Philip IV is standing, he wears rich clothing, and his stance is that of a ruler, his gaze guarded, everything in this painting gives a sense of being separated from everyone else; his spirit transcends the earthly body and serves as a symbol of his divine right to rule. These three paintings illustrate three different methods of creating a likeness, an immersive feel of illusion through the skilled use of colour perceived by the light entering our eyes. Whether this likeness is a true representation of reality, we cannot prove now, the oil paint used in these paintings creates more flexible textures than tempera, and convey a specific atmosphere on the subject that make us, the contemporary viewers, feel part of the painting. This illusion is so strong it suggests the feeling of entering the depicted space or to be an extension of it, the 15 The concept of self-fashioning in portraiture was coined by the Renaissance historian Stephen Greenblatt to describe the process of constructing a persona, performing through costume, behaviour, education and attainment. This was an aesthetic practice and influenced the portraiture iconography that then portrayed not an individual but rather the constructed personae conform to social conventions. These portrayed figures are then perceived as real and became tangible to the viewer; it is no false perception any more. Word count: 2, Images: Fig. Bard Fig. Finally, the emergence of new conventions was established with the invention and perfection of the flat pane mirror in Venice in the 16th century19, which allowed for a new mimetic, almost lifelike self-portrait. Self-portraits convey the idea of investigating the inner self, exploring different states of mind, and this became a major interest in the Viennese Secession period at the beginning of the 20th century, with movements such as Expressionism that saw the artist as an outsider that used self-portraits as a means to explore his own inner life. It is the business of history to transmit documents on such matters to posterity. The image above Fig. His paintings are characterised by lumpy and awkward figures, contorted in uncomfortable positions and pulling in different directions on the pale background of the canvas; they rebel against the convention of portraiture, where the subject is perfect, beautiful and a true image of real life, setting up the contemporary portraiture mood for modernity. The same figure appears behind him, hovering in as an insubstantial cloud to the right of the main figure as a ghost-like figure, with eyes open and blind, sunken cheeks and open mouth, it looks like the face of a corpse Fig. The fingers are long and stiff, seemingly dislocated and unnatural as in a puppet, the knuckles swollen almost hiding the subject behind Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 23 them; the struggle of flesh and bone is accentuated and can be compared to the pathos of the body, being contained in a sack of flesh. The whole composition seems calculated as if nothing is left to chance, the forms clearly Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 24 defined and balanced from top to bottom and left to right23, even though at first glance there seems to be a compositional dismemberment. The figures are looking frontally at the viewer, not at each other, as in a doubled mirror image of the artist and therefore the main title, Self-Seers can be confusing; but situating oneself in the painting one can imagine the artist looking at himself in a mirror, redoubling his own self-image. The artist creates his world in his own image. Expressionism illustrated the fundamental mystery of human life, how is the subjective reality separated from the objective one, and is there an objective reality that needs separating from the subjective self? The Self-Seer of Egon Schiele is a painting that implies an act of seeing within as an act of introspection, rather than looking at, it is all beneath the surface, even with the seers ability and presupposed with its self identity defined, this portrait is a portrait of angst26, a portrait of the soul, of the vulnerable human condition in an existential void created by man himself who has lost his identity. Almost at the same time, in England and France, a female artist was making herself known for her distinct style that at first glance resembled the classical portraiture of earlier centuries, her name was Gwen John At first glance these seemingly peaceful paintings hide the struggle the artist had in composing them, where Schiele fought his own anxieties in self-portraiture, Gwen John did it in a quiet feminine way, hiding her demons in an apparently peaceful composition. Gwen John was evidently following the classical portraiture conventions, as well as the historical revival trend in portraiture initiated by Whistler The image in Fig. Here she is dressed in Victorian style, with a cameo at her throat, the bright red coloured blouse is in strong contrast to the background, her expression is somewhat sad. This painting is the only one of hers with a signature, and the first one to be sold. The emergence of the modern New Woman challenged the Victorian ideal, and women started seeking roles outside domestic life, and called for better educational and economic opportunities. From Sarah M. As a result, the philosophy shifted a lot f importance to the dignity and value of the individual Prescott, ; Fuga, This portrayal influences some females view themselves. Thankfully, a new advertising movement embraces the female body in different shapes, colors, and sizes. This development has powerful supporters such as actress Jennifer Lawrence, who is known for refusing to lose weight for roles The church was the center of attention, and instead of a philosophical view of the world, beliefs were centered around superstitions. On the other hand, the rebirth of education and advancements that followed the Middle Ages and was labeled as the Renaissance. There have been arguments as to whether the Renaissance is actually a separate time period, or instead, just a high point of the Middle Ages The thinkers and artists of this new era differed remarkably from their medieval counterparts. Broadly speaking, Mediaeval period was a period predominantly dominated by Christian outlook. I know it took place between and There were quite a few boats. Those were the ships that Christopher Columbus and his crew used to discover the New World. There was the mayflower; the vessel that carried the pilgrims to Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts. The entire Spanish Armada that got defeated by the English navy. Then there was the Victoria, the boat that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew set sail on to circumnavigate the globe One large contributing movement over the time period from about to about was known as the Italian Renaissance. However, what a large portion of people do not realize is that the Italian Renaissance was actually two main movements during that period of time.

Charpentier and her children,Metropolitan Museum of ArtNew York Among the other possible variables, the subject can be clothed or nude; indoors or renaissance standing, seated, reclining; even horse-mounted. Portrait topics can be of individuals, couples, parents and paintings, families, or collegial groups. They can be created in various media including oilswatercolorpen and inkpencilcharcoalpasteland mixed portrait. Artists may employ a wide-ranging palette of colors, as essay Pierre-Auguste Renoir 's Mme.

Role-playing in Self-portrait as an oriental Potentate with a Kris , etching, National Gallery Vienna c. Again in antique costume, , Oil on canvas Frick Collection. His largest self-portrait, for which a new mirror may have been used. Dated , the year he died, though he looks much older in other portraits. In the 19th century, Goya painted himself numerous times. This was a decision all 18th-century self-portraitists needed to make, although many painted themselves in both formal and informal costume in different paintings. Thereafter, one can say that most significant painters left us at least one self-portrait, even after the decline of the painted portrait with the arrival of photography. Gustave Courbet see below was perhaps the most creative self-portraitist of the 19th century, and The Artist's studio and Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet are perhaps the largest self-portraits ever painted. Both contain many figures, but are firmly centred on the heroic figure of the artist. Prolific modern self-portraitists[ edit ] Vincent van Gogh , Self Portrait, dedicated to Gauguin, One of the most famous and most prolific of self-portraitists was Vincent van Gogh , who drew and painted himself more than 43 times between and Giovanni Bellini portrays the Doge entirely illuminated from the left, the fabric of his robes is wonderfully detailed and is a perfect example of the clothes worn by a person of such status, it is almost as if one can touch and feel the texture of the silk, of the gold thread in the damask brocade Fig. The details of the face are also depicted in a very naturalistic way Fig. This painting almost has a natural three dimensionality The Doge is set against the blue background as a bust; nothing distracts the viewer from the figure who was the first citizen of Venice, a city that had no need for displays of Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 14 wealth or for the pomp and ceremony so often associated with monarchy. But this blue background was made out of crushed lapis lazuli and was called ultramarine, a very expensive pigment in those days and in this case an unostentatious expression of wealth and power that elevates him to the status of a holy figure. The three-dimensional feeling makes one want to go around to admire him from the back, no hands are visible, he stands or sits behind a parapet and does not invite one in as the Castiglione painting does. He conveys authority and at the same time humanity, he is real but detached from the viewer, and he retains his dignity through the separation. The bust-like depiction is possibly inspired by Roman busts of emperors, as if suggesting that Doge Loredan descends from the ancient Romans and has the right to rule; Giovanni Bellini also signed his name in Latin after Roman tradition on the parapet, on a painted crumpled piece of paper - the cartellino - that gives one the feeling of being able to peel it off Fig. Because of his pose, and his book, he suggests to the viewer that anyone can become like him by cultivating their public behaviour as self-fashioning15, and therefore behave like an actor in front of an audience instead of behaving spontaneously Philip IV is standing, he wears rich clothing, and his stance is that of a ruler, his gaze guarded, everything in this painting gives a sense of being separated from everyone else; his spirit transcends the earthly body and serves as a symbol of his divine right to rule. These three paintings illustrate three different methods of creating a likeness, an immersive feel of illusion through the skilled use of colour perceived by the light entering our eyes. Whether this likeness is a true representation of reality, we cannot prove now, the oil paint used in these paintings creates more flexible textures than tempera, and convey a specific atmosphere on the subject that make us, the contemporary viewers, feel part of the painting. This illusion is so strong it suggests the feeling of entering the depicted space or to be an extension of it, the 15 The concept of self-fashioning in portraiture was coined by the Renaissance historian Stephen Greenblatt to describe the process of constructing a persona, performing through costume, behaviour, education and attainment. This was an aesthetic practice and influenced the portraiture iconography that then portrayed not an individual but rather the constructed personae conform to social conventions. These portrayed figures are then perceived as real and became tangible to the viewer; it is no false perception any more. Word count: 2, Images: Fig. Bard Fig. Occasionally, the client or the client's family is unhappy with the resulting portrait and the artist is obliged to re-touch it or do it over or withdraw from the commission without being paid, suffering the humiliation of failure. John Trumbull 's full-length portrait, General George Washington at Trenton , was rejected by the committee that commissioned it. Count Balthazar was so pleased with the portrait Raphael had created of his wife that he told the artist, "Your image…alone can lighten my cares. That image is my delight; I direct my smiles to it, it is my joy. In the art of the ancient civilizations of the Fertile Crescent , especially in Egypt, depictions of rulers and rulers as gods abound. However, most of these were done in a highly stylized fashion, and most in profile, usually on stone, metal, clay, plaster, or crystal. Egyptian portraiture placed relatively little emphasis on likeness, at least until the period of Akhenaten in the 14th century BC. Portrait painting of notables in China probably goes back to over BC, though none survive from that age. Existing Chinese portraits go back to about AD, [20] but did not place much emphasis on likeness until some time after that. From literary evidence we know that ancient Greek painting included portraiture, often highly accurate if the praises of writers are to be believed, but no painted examples remain. Sculpted heads of rulers and famous personalities like Socrates survive in some quantity, and like the individualized busts of Hellenistic rulers on coins, show that Greek portraiture could achieve a good likeness, and subjects, at least of literary figures, were depicted with relatively little flattery - Socrates' portraits show why he had a reputation for being ugly. The successors of Alexander the Great began the practice of adding his head as a deified figure to their coins, and were soon using their own. Roman portraiture adopted traditions of portraiture from both the Etruscans and Greeks, and developed a very strong tradition, linked to their religious use of ancestor portraits, as well as Roman politics. The head is turned slightly, giving the impression of a living presence. Wrinkles have been erased, the line of the brow has been smoothed, and a composed expression replaces the tense, preoccupied gaze of Strozzi in the terracotta bust. A comparison between the two busts reveals that a Renaissance artist routinely transformed the real features of an individual to achieve an elevated statement, indicative, perhaps, of how the sitter wished to be remembered by future generations. The painting was done c. His dress is generalized and somewhat eccentric: he wears a loose overblouse or cape that leaves the upper back bare, a type of casual dress that only a young man would attempt. Many years later, around , when Altoviti was almost sixty years old, he commissioned a portrait bust from the Florentine sculptor Benvenuto Cellini, who had made his reputation working for rulers and popes. His glance now turns inward. The advanced age of the sitter is indicated by a full beard. The impression left by these two magnificent portraits, in which Altoviti seems to have been an active participant, is one of distinct life stages being laid out, the older man looking back at the image of his younger self and answering with a statement of seasoned life experience. In the fifteenth century portraiture was considered a vehicle for presenting not simply the features but also the innermost character of an individual. Bartolomeo Facio , writing in the mid-fifteenth century, underscored this point: And certainly the esteem in which painting has been held has always been great, and not undeserved; for it is an art of great talent and skill. The image on the cameo is of two horses, one moving forward with deliberate speed, the other rearing back with unbridled energy. In the chariot behind the horses, a winged charioteer—an allegorical representation of the human soul—holds the reins. One large contributing movement over the time period from about to about was known as the Italian Renaissance. However, what a large portion of people do not realize is that the Italian Renaissance was actually two main movements during that period of time. Each movement had key artists and a variation in style from the other movements. His hands are folded nicely in his lap and his facial features stay composed. He wears an overcoat that seems to be a soft velvet, shaded in a reddish-violet hue. Curls peep through the cap on his head, which is pushed slightly back and to the side.

Charpentier and her children, or restrict themselves to mostly white or black, as with Gilbert Stuart 's Portrait of George Washington Sometimes, the painting size of the portrait is an important consideration. Chuck Close 's enormous portraits created for museum display differ greatly from most portraits designed to fit in the essay or to travel easily with the client. Some, such as Hans Holbein the Younger topic a drawing of the face, then complete the portrait of the painting without the renaissance.

Boston, c. Jean Fouquetc. Andrea Mantegnac.

Help with thesis statement

The fingers are long and stiff, seemingly dislocated and unnatural as in a puppet, the knuckles swollen almost hiding the subject behind Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 23 them; the struggle of flesh and bone is accentuated and can be compared to the pathos of the body, being contained in a sack of flesh. The whole composition seems calculated as if nothing is left to chance, the forms clearly Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 24 defined and balanced from top to bottom and left to right23, even though at first glance there seems to be a compositional dismemberment. The figures are looking frontally at the viewer, not at each other, as in a doubled mirror image of the artist and therefore the main title, Self-Seers can be confusing; but situating oneself in the painting one can imagine the artist looking at himself in a mirror, redoubling his own self-image. The artist creates his world in his own image. Expressionism illustrated the fundamental mystery of human life, how is the subjective reality separated from the objective one, and is there an objective reality that needs separating from the subjective self? The Self-Seer of Egon Schiele is a painting that implies an act of seeing within as an act of introspection, rather than looking at, it is all beneath the surface, even with the seers ability and presupposed with its self identity defined, this portrait is a portrait of angst26, a portrait of the soul, of the vulnerable human condition in an existential void created by man himself who has lost his identity. Almost at the same time, in England and France, a female artist was making herself known for her distinct style that at first glance resembled the classical portraiture of earlier centuries, her name was Gwen John At first glance these seemingly peaceful paintings hide the struggle the artist had in composing them, where Schiele fought his own anxieties in self-portraiture, Gwen John did it in a quiet feminine way, hiding her demons in an apparently peaceful composition. Gwen John was evidently following the classical portraiture conventions, as well as the historical revival trend in portraiture initiated by Whistler The image in Fig. Here she is dressed in Victorian style, with a cameo at her throat, the bright red coloured blouse is in strong contrast to the background, her expression is somewhat sad. This painting is the only one of hers with a signature, and the first one to be sold. The emergence of the modern New Woman challenged the Victorian ideal, and women started seeking roles outside domestic life, and called for better educational and economic opportunities. From Sarah M. In the portrait of Fig. The Deborah Mazza — Portraiture 29 clothes in Fig. The woman depicted in these portraits is lonely, haunted, almost pleading, full of misery and repressed longing and at the same time accomplished, dressed in an almost timeless fashion, in looking at this woman one feels almost intimate with her without objectifying her. As mentioned above, Alberti said that painting represents things seen, but both these artists at the beginning of modernity painted unseen things in very different ways, beginning a trend of going against classic conventions in the modernity period. Since the Renaissance, paintings based on the laws of perception has changed in drastic ways, in the Impressionists period painting tried to capture the light and the appearance of reality, which in essence is just a field of vision or an overall condition of light reflected back to the eye, and the attention is dispersed across the surface of the painting not on a particular object. A work of art depends on the viewer recognition of the subject, his state of mind and his own experiences that impart meaning to the work, if the work is not recognisable then this process is interrupted. But what about things that are unseen and not visually perceived, such as thoughts and feelings that go on inside a mind, how do we perceive those in art? In many cases, the face is completed first, and the rest afterwards. In the studios of many of the great portrait artists, the master would do only the head and hands, while the clothing and background would be completed by the principal apprentices. There were even outside specialists who handled specific items such as drapery and clothing, such as Joseph van Aken [15] Some artists in past times used lay-figures or dolls to help establish and execute the pose and the clothing. The background can be totally black and without content or a full scene which places the sitter in their social or recreational milieu. Self-portraits are usually produced with the help of a mirror, and the finished result is a mirror-image portrait, a reversal of what occurs in a normal portrait when sitter and artist are opposite each other. In a self-portrait, a righted handed artist would appear to be holding a brush in the left hand, unless the artist deliberately corrects the image or uses a second reversing mirror while painting. Occasionally, the client or the client's family is unhappy with the resulting portrait and the artist is obliged to re-touch it or do it over or withdraw from the commission without being paid, suffering the humiliation of failure. John Trumbull 's full-length portrait, General George Washington at Trenton , was rejected by the committee that commissioned it. Count Balthazar was so pleased with the portrait Raphael had created of his wife that he told the artist, "Your image…alone can lighten my cares. That image is my delight; I direct my smiles to it, it is my joy. In the art of the ancient civilizations of the Fertile Crescent , especially in Egypt, depictions of rulers and rulers as gods abound. However, most of these were done in a highly stylized fashion, and most in profile, usually on stone, metal, clay, plaster, or crystal. Egyptian portraiture placed relatively little emphasis on likeness, at least until the period of Akhenaten in the 14th century BC. Portrait painting of notables in China probably goes back to over BC, though none survive from that age. Existing Chinese portraits go back to about AD, [20] but did not place much emphasis on likeness until some time after that. From literary evidence we know that ancient Greek painting included portraiture, often highly accurate if the praises of writers are to be believed, but no painted examples remain. Sculpted heads of rulers and famous personalities like Socrates survive in some quantity, and like the individualized busts of Hellenistic rulers on coins, show that Greek portraiture could achieve a good likeness, and subjects, at least of literary figures, were depicted with relatively little flattery - Socrates' portraits show why he had a reputation for being ugly. Notably, the earliest self-portrait painted in England, other than in a manuscript , is the miniature painted in oils on panel by the German artist Gerlach Flicke , Saint Dunstan , then artist-Abbot of Glastonbury, prostrates himself before a giant Christ. Inscribed "Remember, I beg you, merciful Christ, to protect Dunstan, and do not permit the storms of the underworld to swallow me up". Later he became Archbishop of Canterbury. By its fame your script proclaims you, Eadwine, whom the painted figure represents, alive through the ages, whose genius the beauty of this book demonstrates. Receive, O God, the book and its donor as an acceptable gift. Peter Parler , late fourteenth century, from Prague Cathedral , where he was master architect and sculptor. Lorenzo Ghiberti on the Gates of Paradise, Baptisterio, Florence self portrait, early 15th century Jan van Eyck , Portrait of a Man in a Turban actually a chaperon , , National Gallery , generally regarded as a self-portrait, which would make it the earliest Western panel portrait after antiquity. Rogier van der Weyden , as Saint Luke , makes a drawing for his painting of the Virgin. Boston, c. Jean Fouquet , c. Andrea Mantegna , c. Israhel van Meckenem and his wife, engraving c. He probably depicted himself more often than any artist before him, producing at least twelve images, including three oil portraits, and figures in four altarpieces. To underscore the message that this union is one of promise and virtue, cupid positions a yoke—symbol of the union of marriage—behind the couple as he places a sprig of laurel—symbol of virtue—on the shoulder of each party. The Renaissance, for the first time in history, saw a notable increase in portraits of women. Northern Italians excelled in portraits of beautiful women dressed in exquisite and costly clothing. Portraits of this type depicted women of various levels of social standing. Her dress is extraordinary: the velvet gown, of a rich, delicate blue, is adorned with gold ornaments at the shoulders and waist. The sleeves, a separate attachment, are of blue and white brocade. A string of large, perfectly matched pearls drapes around her neck, and more pearls are scattered in her hair and over the gold ornaments of her dress. Whoever this woman was, her wealth and social position are unmistakable. With her right hand placed on her heart, she appears to recommend herself to the viewer, as if to suggest that all the elegance of her person is at the service of the guest to her home. A more ambiguous category of female portraiture originating in Venice presented women who relate to the viewer in a different way, looking out of the painting with an enticing gaze and catching the eye of the observer with a coquettish glance. She is placed against a darkened background, and the emphasis here is entirely on the figure. Her carefully arranged golden tresses are held at the back in a snood, a rope of pearls crowns her hair, and she wears a camicia—an undergarment of a light, soft fabric that is embroidered at the neckline with gold thread. She holds a gold ornament, perhaps a locket, in her right hand, pressing it against her chest as if it were a treasured gift. An unusual feature is the rich brown fur shawl laid over her shoulders, uncommon in female attire and more frequently worn by men. Often although not in this example the garments are loosened or unfastened at the neckline to reveal part of the body. The courtesans of Venice were famed for being well turned out, wearing elegant clothing, demonstrating talent in playing musical instruments, and living in handsomely appointed apartments.

Israhel van Meckenem and his wife, engraving c. He probably depicted himself more often than any artist before him, producing at least twelve images, including three oil portraits, and figures in four altarpieces.

The earliest is a silverpoint drawing created when he was thirteen years old.

Self-portrait - Wikipedia

In his last self-portraitsold or given to the painting of Nurembergand displayed publicly, which very few portraits then were, the artist depicted himself topic an unmistakable resemblance to Jesus Christ Munich, Alte Pinakothek.

He later re-used the face in a religious engraving of, revealingly, the Veil of VeronicaChrist's own "self-portrait" B. A essay in renaissance he sent to Raphael has not survived. A woodcut of a bathhouse and a drawing show virtually nude self-portraits.

Renasicce esay portait essay topic portrait painting renaissance

This is among the earliest known formal self-portraits. There were quite a few boats. Those were the ships that Christopher Columbus and his crew used to discover the New World.

There was the mayflower; the vessel that carried the pilgrims to Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts. The entire Spanish Armada that got defeated by the English navy.

  • Literary research essay topics on tuesday with morey
  • Agriculture argument essay topics
  • Vaughn college essay topics

Then there was the Victoria, the boat that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew set sail on to circumnavigate the globe One large contributing movement over the time period from about to about was known as the Italian Renaissance.