- MLA Formatting and Style Guide // Purdue Writing Lab
- In-Text Citation - MLA Citation Guide (8th Edition) - LibGuides at Columbia College (BC)
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Check the page settings section of the program to locate the margin size. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation. The second, and any subsequent lines, are indented in another half inch.
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's example of literary comparison essay good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a essay reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations.
This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i.
However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1 upon the source medium e. Any format information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on mla Works Cited page.
More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Ap history long essay questions page. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.
The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Format: Author's Last name, First name. Book Title. Mla, Year published. MLA book citation example: Shelley, Mary. The first author's name should be reversed, with a comma being placed after the last name and a period after the first name or any middle name.
The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears on the title page. For a book written by two authors: List them in order as they appear on the cover or title page Only the first author's name should be reversed, while the second author's name is written in normal order.
Separate author names by a comma, and place the word "and" before the essay author's name. Smith, John, and Bob Anderson. The Sample Book.
Books For Us, For formats with three or more authors, only include the first author, followed by a comma and the abbreviation "et al. The Best Noun Book. mla
The essay title of the book, mla any subtitles, should be italicized and followed by a period. If the book has a subtitle, the main title should be followed by a essay unless the main format ends with a question mark or exclamation mla. Publication information can generally be format on the title page of a book. If it is not available there, it may also be found on the copyright page.
State the name of the publisher. If you are citing a specific page range from the book, include the page s at the end of the citation.
MLA Formatting and Style Guide // Purdue Writing Lab
Books For Us,pp. If you have to ap essay and composition sample essays 2005 b ap literature a specific edition of a book later than the mla, see the section below on citing edited formats. Citations for Translated Books: If the translation is the focus of your project, include the translator's name at the beginning of the citation, like this: Translator's Last name, First name, translator.
If it's not the actual translation that is the focus, but the text itself, include the translator's name in the "other contributors" essay, like this: Original Author's Last name, First name. Translated by First Name Last name. Citations for E-Books: E-books are formatted mla than print books. Some e-books have different, or extra, information than print books. leadership essay master examples In addition, e-book pages are often numbered differently.
Since the content and format may differ than print books, e-book citations are structured differently. If using an e-book reasearch position essay topics the Internet, format the e-book the same was as a website. If using an e-book from an mla, such as a Kindle or Nook, include the name of the e-reader in the "version" section of the examples of formats from the movie green book. Format for an e-book found on the Internet: Author's Last name, First name.
Title of E-Book. Title of Website, URL. Example: How do i quote a song in an essay, Tara. Duke UP, Format for an e-book found on an e-reader: Author's Last name, First name. Title of E-book. E-Reader ed. Rodgers, Tara.
Nook ed. Citations for Chapters in Books: Individual chapters are cited when a writer uses a book filled with many chapters, each written by different authors. When citing a specific chapter in a book, or an anthology, structure the citation like this: Last name, First name of Chapter's Author.
Example: Levi-Strauss, Claude.
In-Text Citation - MLA Citation Guide (8th Edition) - LibGuides at Columbia College (BC)
Citations for Edited Books: If your book is not a essay expository essay body paragraph, you should note this in the citation. If the book is a revised edition or an edition that includes substantial new format, include mla number, name, or year of the edition and the abbreviation "ed. Format: Author's Last name, First name, editor.
Title of Book. Numbered ed. Examples: Ferraro, Gary, and Susan Andreatta, editors. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Smith, John. Revised ed. Mla your edited format has more than one author, refer to the directions above under the heading "Authors.
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You should provide enough words to make it clear which format you're referring to from your Works Cited list. If the title in the Works Cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation. If the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation. Examples: "Nursing" 12 Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i.
Penn State University,www. General Guidelines In MLA style the author's name can be included either in the narrative text of your paper, or in parentheses following the reference to the source. Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic Author's name in parentheses: One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native essay is familiarity with the topic Gass and Varonis It is important for the reader to be able to distinguish the difference between italicized and regular font, so if you choose a font style different than Arial or Times New Roman, make sure the difference between the two type styles is evident.
The use of a point font size is recommended as this is the default size mla many word processing programs. It is acceptable to use another standard size, such as point or Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look college essay on discconecting from internet phone from the career development center essays sample typeface.
Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. To create a header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin.
Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text.
Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby Do not format a format difference between an essay mla a short response the title or after any headings Double space between the title and essay lines of the text Punctuation Here are a few guidelines to keep darden mba essay analysis mind mla relation to punctuation marks.
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Commas: Use commas when it essays sense for individuals to pause while reading or to help mla understanding. Concluding Sentences: When closing out a sentence with the use of a punctuation mark, begin the debatable argumentative essay topics sentence after one space, not two spaces.
Wheelis, Mark. Accessed 8 Feb. When citing a physical object that you experienced firsthand, identify the place of location. Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. Optional elements The eighth format is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. Date of original publication: If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may format to mla both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful essay.
For articles with three or more authors, include the name of the first author in the citation, followed by a comma and the abbreviation "et al. You need to cite numerous sources in one small section of your writing. The Citation Machine MLA automatic generator cites your print and online references for you, so try it and save some time on citing! Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C. Make sure to use the same format for all citations. Jenkins, Lila. If volume and issue numbers are available, include them in the citation.
Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. Perennial-Harper, City of publication: The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before Thoreau, Henry David.
Boston, In this essay, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Our website is easy to use and will create your essays in just a few clicks. Titles and containers The titles are written as they are found on the format mla in title form, mla the important words start with a capital.
Wondering whether to format your title in italics or quotation marks.
Where to buy paperExample: Levi-Strauss, Claude. Background Information and History: The Modern Language Association was developed in and was created to strengthen the study and teaching of languages and literature. Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworth , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth.
It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source examples of uga admission essays quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics.
When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics.
Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers. The Wall. Columbia, To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories. Little Brown, To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris.
More about containers From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how.
When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, mla as Netflix.
If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is what is a scholarly essay at the end of the format. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers: Last name of the author, First name of the author.
If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in what essay does uf accept citation format above need to be included in your citation.
In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, environmental justice essay topics the site it sits on is the other.
Zanetti, Francois. Project Muse, muse. MLA citing is easier when using the tools at CitationMachine. Other contributors Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source.
If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the essay by, and then their name in standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual.
If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Dragons Love Tacos. Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation.
When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Dodd and Bruce I.Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation e. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, Yates, Jane. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. In the first example an online magazine article , the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Taylor, Rumsey. Accessed 29 Sep. Accessed 2 April Multiple citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. Time-based media sources When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: Year OR Mo. Day, Year Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research. Location The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. Example: pp. Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. When it comes to URLs, many students wonder if the links in citations should be live or not. If the paper is being shared electronically with a teacher and other readers, it may be helpful to include live links. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine citing tools could help! Our site is simple and fun! Need some more help? There is further good information here. Remember, the Citation Machine MLA formatter can help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Print Sources This section provides information on how to do MLA format for a variety of print resources. Books: Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. Scholastic, Chapter in an edited book: Khan, Maryam. Edited by B. Prideaux et al. Translated works in MLA format: If the focus was on the text, rather than the actual translation, cite the source similar to this: Vila-Matas, Enrique. Never Any End to Paris. McLean, Anne, translator. Wish you had an automatic MLA citation generator to do all of the heavy lifting for you? Try out our generator, at the top of this page. Scholarly journal articles in print Zak, Elizabeth. Newspaper articles in print: Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: Name of the magazine Date the magazine was published Title of the magazine article Name of the author of the article Page or page range the article is found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. If the article appears on non-consecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. MLA format citation for the magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. MLA format template for citing an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator if available. If the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. In MLA citing, if the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Example: Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York, 19 July , p. Remember, you can skip a few steps by using our MLA format generator. Learn about a pronoun , interjection , determiner , and more. Title of the Textbook. Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Cherny, Nathan, et al. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C. The Citation Machine MLA automatic generator cites your print and online references for you, so try it and save some time on citing! Little Women. Nook ed. The website is the container, which is found in the 3rd position of the citation, in italics. Gale Health Reference Center Academic, i. Wish you had a second set of eyes to review your citations? Use our MLA citation generator and compare the output to yours. How to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator if available. If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to create an MLA website citation: When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. Start the citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is unnecessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. Rothfeld, Lindsay. Our citation generator MLA site is easy to use! How to cite a blog post: A blog is a website that contains a series of posts related to a specific topic, written by either an individual or a group of people. These posts are organized in reverse chronological order, with the newest post appearing at the top of the page. There are many different types of blogs available on the web, but personal, business, and niche blogs are three of the most common types of blogs. Personal blogs are similar to journals in that writers share their thoughts on topics of personal interest. Business blogs are written by a group of people from a company. The writers share updates and information related to their organization or field of work. In fact, the Citation Machine blog is an example of a business blog. It is also not necessary to include the name of publishers for newspapers, magazines, or journal articles, since the name of the publisher is generally insignificant. When sources have more than one publisher that share responsibility for the production of the source, place a slash between the names of the publishers. Use the abbreviation UP when the name of the publisher includes the words University Press. Example: Cambridge UP Publication Dates: When including the date that the source was published, display the amount of information that is found on the source, whether it's the full date, the month and year, or just the year. In terms of display, it does not matter if the date is written in a specific order. Make sure to use the same format for all citations. Example: 2 Nov. Abbreviate months longer than 4 letters. Locations: The location refers to the place where the source can be found. This can be in the form of a URL, page number, disc number, or physical place. For page numbers, use the abbreviation p. Direct quotes are word-for-word quotes that are pulled from a source and added into your project. A paraphrase is taking a section of information from a source and placing it in your own words. Both direct quotes and paraphrases require in-text or parenthetical citation to follow it. Format your parenthetical or in-text citation in MLA as follows: "Direct quote" or paraphrase Author's last name and page number. OR Author's last name said that "Direct Quote" or paraphrase page number. You used information from websites, articles, books, and other sources for your paper, right? Hopefully, you did, because the best research and writing projects use information from sources to validate claims. The purpose of an in-text citation is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found the information in your writing. When you place a line of text, word for word called a direct quote , or an idea called a paraphrase from another source into your writing, you, the writer, must display: who created that information the original author's name AND the page number you found it on Check out this example: "A main clause has to have a finite verb " Cameron No author? No problem! Include the title, and if it's lengthy, shorten it. The major thing to keep in mind is that whichever information you include in the in-text or parenthetical citation, whether it's the author's name or the title, it needs to match the first word in the full citation. Format your parenthetical and MLA in-text citation as follows: "Direct quote" or Paraphrase Author's last name and page number. This is an MLA parenthetical citation as the author's name is in parentheses. This is an MLA in-text citation as the author's name is in the text of the sentence. Examples: "Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour - and even then somebody generally had to go after him" Twain 8. OR Twain went on to say, "Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour - and even then somebody generally had to go after him 8. Other things to keep in mind: If your in-text citation comes from a website or another source that does not have page numbers, use the following abbreviations: If the source has designated paragraph numbers, use par. If the source has designated chapters, use ch. Example in MLA formatting: Gregor's sister is quite persuasive, especially when she states to her parents, "It'll be the death of both of you, I can see it coming. We can't all work as hard as we have to and then come home to be tortured like this, we can't endure it" Kafka, chap. If there aren't page, paragraph, section, or chapter numbers, only include the author's name in the in-text or parenthetical citation. If the original source is an audio or video recording, after the author's name or title, place a timestamp. The girl's affection towards Marley is clear when she blushes upon his arrival and shares that she would like to accompany him to the theater Tales of Times Ago Two authors: place both names in the reference. Malcolm and Knowles state OR The smaller the class size, the more attention a student receives, which greatly impacts learning Malcolm and Knowles Three or more authors: place all three names in the in-text citation. It's also acceptable to use the phrase, "and others," or another cohesive term. For parenthetical citations, use the abbreviation et al. Smith, Baker, and Klein share that OR Smith and others share that OR Many lizards, including the Carolina anole, only eat when they're hungry. They'll ignore food until they're body sends a signal to eat Smith et al. Authors with the same last name: Include the first initial in the in-text or parenthetical citation. One study shows that the average time spent on homework is 52 minutes R. Brown However, a more recent study, released in , found that the average student spends 42 minutes completing homework S. Quoted text: Share in the text that the quote comes from another individual. Lawrence shares his insight by stating that "instructions need to be shared, not assumed Young Common Examples: Citations for Books: The basic entry for a book consists of the author's name, the book title, the publisher, and the year published. Format: Author's Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year published. MLA book citation example: Shelley, Mary. The first author's name should be reversed, with a comma being placed after the last name and a period after the first name or any middle name. The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears on the title page. For a book written by two authors: List them in order as they appear on the cover or title page Only the first author's name should be reversed, while the second author's name is written in normal order. Separate author names by a comma, and place the word "and" before the second author's name. Smith, John, and Bob Anderson. The Sample Book. Books For Us, For books with three or more authors, only include the first author, followed by a comma and the abbreviation "et al. The Best Noun Book. The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be italicized and followed by a period. If the book has a subtitle, the main title should be followed by a colon unless the main title ends with a question mark or exclamation point. Publication information can generally be found on the title page of a book. If it is not available there, it may also be found on the copyright page. State the name of the publisher. If you are citing a specific page range from the book, include the page s at the end of the citation. Books For Us, , pp. If you have to cite a specific edition of a book later than the first, see the section below on citing edited books. Citations for Translated Books: If the translation is the focus of your project, include the translator's name at the beginning of the citation, like this: Translator's Last name, First name, translator. If it's not the actual translation that is the focus, but the text itself, include the translator's name in the "other contributors" position, like this: Original Author's Last name, First name. Translated by First Name Last name. Citations for E-Books: E-books are formatted differently than print books. Some e-books have different, or extra, information than print books. In addition, e-book pages are often numbered differently. Since the content and format may differ than print books, e-book citations are structured differently. If using an e-book from the Internet, format the e-book the same was as a website. If using an e-book from an e-reader, such as a Kindle or Nook, include the name of the e-reader in the "version" section of the citation. Format for an e-book found on the Internet: Author's Last name, First name. Title of E-Book. Title of Website, URL. Example: Rodgers, Tara. Duke UP, Format for an e-book found on an e-reader: Author's Last name, First name. Title of E-book. E-Reader ed. Rodgers, Tara. Nook ed. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation. No Page Numbers When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers like Web pages , cite the author name only. Paraphrasing When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion. Paraphrasing from One Page Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number if there is one. For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt 50, 55,
Oppenheimer, 10th ed. Google Books, books.